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[Paper] “X-photon laser direct write 3D nanolithography” published by WRH professor Saulius Juodkazis

WRH professor Saulius Juodkazis (School of Materials and Chemical Technology) published a paper in Virtual and Physical Prototyping.

“X-photon laser direct write 3D nanolithography”

Multiphoton photopolymerisation (MPP), also known as 3D nanoprinting, was studied using a wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser. The possibility of using any colour of the spectrum from 500 to 1200 nm with a fixed pulse width of 100 fs revealed an interplay of photophysical mechanisms more delicate than just two-photon photopolymerisation. An effective order of absorption, i.e. the X-photon absorption, as well as optimal exposure conditions were assessed for photosensitised and pure SZ2080TM pre-polymer. The tunability of wavelength greatly influenced the dynamic fabrication window (DFW), optimised conditions resulting in a 10-fold increase. Furthermore, a non-trivial energy deposition by X-photon absorption was noted with an onset of a strong lateral size increase at longer wavelengths and can be understood as due to reaching epsilon-near-zero conditions. Such a control over the voxel aspect ratio and, consequently, the photopolymerised volume, may boost 3D nanoprinting efficiency. Overall, the results reveal wavelength being an important degree of freedom to tailor the MPP process and, if optimised, benefiting broad applications in areas of micro-optics, nanophotonic devices, metamaterials and tissue engineering.



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